1. 1.       NEEDS ANALYSIS
  • Identify specific job performance skills needed to improve performance and productivity.
  • Analyze the audience to ensure that the program will be suited to their specific levels of education, experience, and skills, as well as their attitudes and personal motivations.
  • Use research to develop specific measurable knowledge and performance objectives.
  • Gather instructional objectives, methods, media, description of sequence of content, examples, exercises, and activities. Organize them into a curriculum that supports adult learning theory and provides a blueprint for program development.
  • Make sure all materials, such as video scripts, leaders’ guides, and participants’ work-books, complement each other, are written clearly, and blend into unified training geared directly to the stated learning objectives.
  • Carefully and professionally handle all program elements – whether reproduced on paper, film, or tape – to guarantee quality and effectiveness.
  1. 3.       VALIDATION
  • Introduce and validate the training before a representative audience. Base final revisions on pilot results to ensure program effectiveness.
  1. 4.       IMPLEMENTATION
  • When applicable, boost success with a train- the –trainer workshop that focuses on presentation knowledge and skills in addition to training content.
  • Assess program success according to:

REACTION – Document the learners’ immediate reactions to the training.

LEARNING – Use feedback devices or pre- and posttests to measure what learners have actually learned.

BEHAVIOR – Note supervisors’ reactions to learners’ performance following completion of the training. This is one way to measure the degree to which  learners apply new skills  and knowledge to their jobs.

RESULTS – Determine the level of improvement in job performance and assess needed maintenance.



Human resource management, gary dessler, florida international university. eighth edition, international edition. Prentice hall international, inc.

Chapter 7, training and developing employees, page 251